15th century : Ngoy kingdom, founded by Bantu-speaking people, in the south of Cabinda. The economy is based on the slave trade.
1783 : the Portuguese build a fort in Cabinda. Ngoy ally with neighbouring Kakongo and with the French to destroy it.
1830s : exporting slaves have gradually brought wealth and power to the Ngoy nobility at the expense of the king, who was rendered ineffectual. The kingdom finally disintegrates into petty principalities after the nobles failed to elect a new king.
29th september 1883 : treaty of Tchifuma with the Kakongo kingdom.
29th décember 1884 : treaty of Tchikamba with the Loango kingdom.
1er fébruary 1885 : treaty of Simulambuco with the Ngoio kingdom. Henceforth, Cabinda is entirely under portuguese protectorate. Angola has been a portuguese colony since 1482.
1933 : the new portuguese fundamental law maintains among its overseas provinces the distinction between Angola and Cabinda.
1956 : Portugal binds Cabinda to Angola.
1963 : creation of the Front for the liberation of the enclave
of Cabinda (FLEC) in Pointe-Noire (Congo-Brazzaville), as a result of the
merger of the Movement for the liberation of the enclave of Cabinda (MLEC),
the Committee of action for the cabindese national union (CAUNC) and the
Alliance of Mayombe (Alliama).
1963 : the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) ranks Cabinda as the 39th state still to be decolonised (and Angola as the 35th).
1971 : the Constitution of 1971 maintains the distinction between Cabinda and Angola.
25th april 1974 : the "Carnation Revolution" in Portugal marks a decisive step towards the accession of Portuguese-speaking colonies to the independance.
1975 : the ambassador for Zaïre in Ethiopia makes a speech
at the tribune of the OAU in favor of the self-determination of Cabinda.
10th january 1975 : the Alvor conference in Portugal, which assembles the three angolan movements of liberation (UNITA, MPLA, FNLA), apart from the FLEC, legitimates the annexation of Cabinda by Angola.
november 1975 : occupied by the Angolan militaries helped by the Cubans and the Sovietics. Cabinda is considered as the18th province of Angola.
1976 : the independance of Cabinda is proclaimed in Kampala (Uganda). A " provisional government " sits in Kinshasa (Zaïre).
1979 : uncontrolled elements of the FLEC might have destroyed some installations of the railway linking Brazzaville to Pointe-Noire. Deterioration of the relations between the FLEC and Congo.
may 91 : a legislation approved by the Angolan people's national Assembly stipulates that the political parties must enjoy support in at least 14 of the 18 provinces of Angola, which is unfair to movements such as the FLEC.
september 1992 : elections : massive abstention (the only voters are the occupation troops and the angolan civil servants, 16 000 men). Military mutiny ; 9 killed. Collective strike.
1994 : the angolan army controls the enclave. 25 000 cabindese refugees flee to Congo and Zaïre.
25th february 1995 : meeting in Paris between the angolan president,
Mr. Dos Santos, and cabindan leaders, including some of the FLEC-FAC.
may 1995 : violent confrontation at the border between Cabinda and Congo. 9 angolan soldiers and 1 congolese civil are killed.
summer 1995 : attack of the FLEC-Renovada (a faction of the FLEC) on the town of Cabinda.
28th september 1995 : cease-fire signed for 4 months with the FLEC-Renovada.
may 1996 : the 17th ministerial conference of the African Organisation
of Wood (OAB) takes place in Cabinda.
10th may - beginning of july : the Angolan armed forces launch an attack on the town of Nekuto with tanks and helicopters. 150 separatists are killed.
mid may 1996 : the government and the FLEC-FAC (a faction of the FLEC) sign an agreement outlining the principle of a cease-fire.
end of may 1996 : new clashes between governmental troops and independantists. The chief for the FLEC-FAC asserts that a cease-fire is possible only if the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) withdraw from Cabinda.
january 1997 : three south-africans and a national from São
Tome and Principe are kidnapped by a faction of the FLEC. They are released
in march, probably after a ransom was paid.
april 1997 : the american company Chevron announces the discovery of a new oil field off the Cabindese coast of a capacity of 20000 barils a day.
october-november 1997 : the Angolans use Cabinda as a backward military base in their support to Denis Sassou Nguesso, who takes the power inCongo-Brazzaville. The closeness of Cabinda to Pointe-Noire enables them to control this town.
21st may 1998 : 4 militants of the FLEC-Renovada are being arrested
in Kinshasa without any known charge.
beginning of june 1998 : oil traffic between Cabinda and Pointe-Noire in connexion with a fuel shortage in Congo-Brazzaville.
21th august - 6th september 1998 : dozens of civilians are slaugthered by the Angolan armed forces in the east of Cabinda.
Sources : Quid 1993 et 1997, Africa Yearbook 1997, Revue juridique et politique, indépendance et coopération (April 1996), Africa n°1 radio, Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Another history of Cabinda.
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